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Voice Ranges Keep the top three voices within an octave of each other. The distance between the bass and tenor can be of any reasonable interval never greater than two octaves.
Triad Position A triad is in close position when the distance between the soprano and tenor is less than an octave--no other chord tones can be written between the soprano and tenor voices. A triad is in open position when the distance between the soprano and tenor is more than an octave--another chord tone besides the alto voice could be written between the soprano and tenor voices.
Safe Doublings As a general rule, the tonic, subdominant and dominant tones in a key can be doubled freely.
Usual Doublings Root position: Double the soprano note. Double the bass note.
Minor triads root or 3rd in bass: The 3rd is often doubled, particularly if the 3rd is the tonic, subdominant or dominant note of the key. Diminished triad usually in first inversion: Double the 3rd; when the 5th is in the soprano, double the 5th.
Usually all four voices are present. In the major-minor 7th chord, root in bass, the root is sometimes doubled and the 5th is omitted. Avoid doubling the altered tone unless it is the root. Otherwise, same as non-altered triads. Chord Connection Move each voice the shortest distance possible.
Move the soprano and bass in contrary or oblique motion if possible. Do not double the leading tone, any altered tone including the 6 and 7 scale degrees in minorany nonharmonic tone, or the 7th of any chord.
Avoid parallel 5ths and parallel octaves between any two voices, and the augmented second A2 in a melodic line. Triads in Root Position Repeated Roots: When roots in the bass are repeated, the two triads may be written in the same position open or closeor they may be in different positions.
Triad positions should be changed: Retain the common tone; move the other voices stepwise; the roots of both chords should be doubled.
Or, do not keep the common tone, especially when the soprano descends from scale step 2 to 1; move all three upper voices in similar motion to the nearest chord tone; the roots of both chords should be doubled.
Or, move the 3rd of the first triad by the interval of a fourth to the 3rd of the second triad; hold the common tone and move the other voice by step. At the cadence, the root of the final triad may be tripled, omitting the 5th.
Roots a Second Apart no common tone: Move the upper three voices in contrary motion to the bass, making sure each voice moves to the nearest chord tone of the next chord; the roots of both chords should be doubled.
Only two upper voices will move in opposite direction to the bass. Keep both common tones and move remaining upper voices stepwise; the roots of both chords should be doubled. When it is impossible or undesirable to follow conventional procedures, double the 3rd in the second of the two triads; however, if this third is the leading tone or any altered tone, double the third in the first of the two triads.
As always, avoid doubling the leading tone or any altered tone. Approach and leave each doubled tone as prescribed. Double any factor that facilitates smooth voice-leading.
Favored notes are the soprano most common and bass. As always, do not double the leading tone. Voice-leading for the viio6: Double the 3rd bass note or 5th factor; bass is preferred.The New York Conservatory of Music is a music school on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, New York City.
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Or, do not keep the common tone, especially when the soprano descends from scale step 2 to 1; move all three upper voices in similar motion to the nearest chord .