The Bolsheviks Social-democracy was unable to prevent the First World War, and only one section — the Bolshevik Party in Russia, was able to overthrow their government, pull out of the war and institute a socialist policy. The Bolsheviks called on the workers of all countries to come to their aid. Led the Soviets to power in the Russian Revolution. Elected to the head of the Soviet government untilwhen he retired due to ill health.
Cognition Cognition means acquiring knowledge of the objective world. The central concept in the Marxist understanding of Cognition is practicewhich is the criterion of truth for Marxism. While the objective world is the source of knowledge, mere existence as part of the world and sensuous contact with the world does not provide knowledge of the world.
Only struggling to change the world can create conditions for acquiring knowledge. Even then, only if action is connected with theory can theory be changed and knowledge acquired, for blind, impulsive activity Communist manifesto research paper lead to success or failure but not knowledge.
Central to the problem of cognition is the relation between Subject and Object. Different understandings of the subject-object relation lead to scepticism — that cognition is impossible, Relativism — that knowledge is possible but has no objective significance; dogmatism — that knowledge is not only possible but can be absolute and final; Empiricism and Rationalism which emphasise respectively Experience or Reason in Cognition; Objectivism and Subjectivism which emphasise the role of the objective world or subjective consciousness in the process of Cognition.
The distinction usually made between collaboration and cooperation is that in cooperation, the workers do separate tasks each contributing to the final product, whereas in collaboration the workers actively engage on the same tasks, correcting one another, swapping ideas, exerting combined force, and so on.
Collaboration therefore, involves both cooperation unity and conflict critique. Though division of labour i. For constructivist psychologycollaboration is the essential character of human activity and the basis for all learning.
Command Economy Command economy is the method of managing the economy of a whole country by means of top-down direction. The term came into currency in the s as a description of the economy in the USSR and other Stalinist countries, where the entire economy was run along the same lines as single capitalist enterprises had been run up until that time, before the spread of Toyotism.
Commercialisation Commercialisation is the process orienting labour away from a public service ethos to production of commodities and a commercial ethos. Recent activities which have been subject to commercialisation include scientific research, artistic and cultural activity, public education and sport.
Commercialisation is a form of socialisation which ensures the dominance of the interests of capital in a given field of activity. Commodification Commodification means the transformation of relationships, formerly untainted by commerce, into commercial relationships, relationships of exchange, of buying and selling.
Marx and Engels described the process in in the Communist Manifesto: It has drowned out the most heavenly ecstasies of religious fervour, of chivalrous enthusiasm, of philistine sentimentalism, in the icy water of egotistical calculation.
It has resolved personal worth into exchange value, and in place of the numberless indefeasible chartered freedoms, has set up that single, unconscionable freedom - Free Trade. In one word, for exploitation, veiled by religious and political illusions, it has substituted naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation.
It has converted the physician, the lawyer, the priest, the poet, the man of science, into its paid wage labourers. Examples of commodification include: The extension of commodification is a contradictory process: Conservation of the old modes of production in unaltered form, was, on the contrary, the first condition of existence for all earlier industrial classes.
Constant revolutionising of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones.
All fixed, fast frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is profaned, and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses his real condition of life and his relations with his kind.
It must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connections everywhere. To the great chagrin of reactionaries, it has drawn from under the feet of industry the national ground on which it stood. All old-established national industries have been destroyed or are daily being destroyed.
They are dislodged by new industries, whose introduction becomes a life and death question for all civilised nations, by industries that no longer work up indigenous raw material, but raw material drawn from the remotest zones; industries whose products are consumed, not only at home, but in every quarter of the globe.
In place of the old wants, satisfied by the production of the country, we find new wants, requiring for their satisfaction the products of distant lands and climes. In place of the old local and national seclusion and self-sufficiency, we have intercourse in every direction, universal inter-dependence of nations.
And as in material, so also in intellectual production. The intellectual creations of individual nations become common property. National one-sidedness and narrow-mindedness become more and more impossible, and from the numerous national and local literatures, there arises a world literature.
It compels all nations, on pain of extinction, to adopt the bourgeois mode of production; it compels them to introduce what it calls civilisation into their midst, i. In one word, it creates a world after its own image.
It has created enormous cities, has greatly increased the urban population as compared with the rural, and has thus rescued a considerable part of the population from the idiocy of rural life.
Just as it has made the country dependent on the towns, so it has made barbarian and semi-barbarian countries dependent on the civilised ones, nations of peasants on nations of bourgeois, the East on the West.
It has agglomerated population, centralised the means of production, and has concentrated property in a few hands.15 / 7 / WAR IN GAZA For the Rebirth of a Proletarian and Communist Movement in the Middle East.
The air raids on Gaza over the last few days are just a continuation of the Israeli government’s same old policy against the Palestinian people, and especially the proletarian class. Communist Manifesto Essays: Over , Communist Manifesto Essays, Communist Manifesto Term Papers, Communist Manifesto Research Paper, Book Reports.
ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access. Celebrities Commonly Mistaken as Being Jewish who are NOT JEWISH. Dan Ackroyd (French/British descent from Canada) Alan Alda (Italian-American star of MASH born Alfonso Joseph D'Abruzzo).
🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes. Karl Marx Research Papers Karl Marx research papers examine the sociologists ideas and works such as the Communist Manifesto.
Karl Marx research papers report that Karl Marx is known as one of the premier conflict theorists, and he believed that economic factors are the basic source of conflict. Anarcho-communism (also known as anarchist communism, free communism, libertarian communism and communist anarchism) is a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state, capitalism, wage labour and private property (while retaining respect for personal property) in favor of common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy and a horizontal network of .