How the Respiratory System Works share: We are all born with the same equipment that does the same thing, but some of us end up, for whatever reason, needing a little help. Then we can understand the different kinds of diseases that can cause problems for us down the road. Air comes into the body through the nose or mouth, and enters the airways.
What is a telomere? DNA is perhaps the most famous biological molecule; it is present in all forms of life on earth. But what is DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid? Here, we cover the essentials.
Virtually every cell in your body contains DNA or the genetic code that makes you you. DNA carries the instructions for the development, growth, reproduction, and functioning of all life. Differences in the genetic code are the reason why one person has blue eyes rather than brown, why some people are susceptible to certain diseases, why birds only have two wings, and why giraffes have long necks.
Amazingly, if all of the DNA in the human body was unraveled, it would reach to the sun and back more than times. In this article, we break down the basics of DNA, what it is made of, and how it works.
In short, DNA is a long molecule that contains each person's unique genetic code. It holds the instructions for building the proteins that are essential for our bodies to function.
DNA instructions are passed from parent to child, with roughly half of a child's DNA originating from the father and half from the mother.
Structure DNA's double helix. DNA is a two-stranded molecule that appears twisted, giving it a unique shape referred to as the double helix.
Each of the two strands is a long sequence of nucleotides or individual units made of: The bases of the two strands of DNA are stuck together to create a ladder-like shape.
Within the ladder, A always sticks to T, and G always sticks to C to create the "rungs. Chromatin and chromosomes The complete set of chromosomes in a human male. National Human Genome Research Institute Most DNA lives in the nuclei of cells and some is found in mitochondria, which are the powerhouses of the cells.
Because we have so much DNA 2 meters in each cell and our nuclei are so small, DNA has to be packaged incredibly neatly. Strands of DNA are looped, coiled and wrapped around proteins called histones. In this coiled state, it is called chromatin. Chromatin is further condensed, through a process called supercoiling, and it is then packaged into structures called chromosomes.
These chromosomes form the familiar "X" shape as seen in the image above. Each chromosome contains one DNA molecule.
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes or 46 chromosomes in total. Interestingly, fruit flies have 8 chromosomesand pigeons have Chromosome 1 is the largest and contains around 8, genes. The smallest is chromosome 21 with around 3, genes. What is a gene? Each length of DNA that codes for a specific protein is called a gene.
For instance, one gene codes for the protein insulinthe hormone that helps control levels of sugar in the blood. Humans have around 20,—30, genes, although estimates vary. Our genes only account for around 3 percent of our DNA, the remaining 97 percent is less well understood.I originally introduced the term “orthorexia” in the article below, published in the October issue of Yoga Journal.
Some of the things I said in the article are no longer true of . Structure.—The frame-work of the external nose is composed of bones and cartilages; it is covered by the integument, and lined by mucous membrane. 3 The bony frame-work occupies the upper part of the organ; it consists of the nasal bones, and the frontal processes of the maxillæ.
4 It may be. Botox is made from an extremely hazardous neurotoxin. Best known for its cosmetic effects, Botox is also used to treat disorders of the bowel, muscles, and bladder, as well as migraines and other.
The respiratory system (likewise referred to as the ventilator system) is a complicated biological system comprised of several organs that facilitate the inhalation and exhalation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in living organisms (or, in other words, breathing).
Root Cause of Asthma Attack, Respiratory Natural Treatment, Prevention. There is overwhelming evidence that asthma is closely connected with lifestyle, and especially diet. Essay: The respiratory system The human body is organized into numerous complex systems that interact with each other in order for it to function and sustain life.
One of those vital systems is the respiratory system.