With the penetration and proliferation of Dravidian vocabulary and the influence of major Indian religionsAncient Malay evolved into the Old Malay language. The oldest uncontroversial specimen of Old Malay is the 7th century CE Sojomerto inscription from Central JavaKedukan Bukit Inscription from South Sumatra and several other inscriptions dating from the 7th to 10th centuries discovered in SumatraMalay peninsulawestern Javaother islands of the Sunda archipelagoand Luzon. However, as noted by some linguists, the precise relationship between these two, whether ancestral or not, is problematical and remained uncertain. It may be the case that the language of the Srivijayan inscriptions is a close cousin rather than an ancestor of Classical Malay.
On the other side, the metacognitive strategies help learners regulate, or supervise learning by self-management, planning, setting priorities, or establishing goals. Communicative strategies seem to indirectly influence language learning since they focus on communication, transmission and clarification of the message.
Social strategies also contribute indirectly to learning since they only offer exposure to language, without directly leading to the obtaining and storing of it. As Rubin, she also supports the existence of direct and indirect strategies, the former involving the use of the target language for remembering more effectively, using cognitive processes and compensating for lack of knowledge, whereas the latter organize, manage and evaluate learning without directly involving the target language.
Memory strategies are used for storing and retrieving new information, cognitive strategies are applied for understanding and producing the language, while compensation strategies are designed for dealing with limited proficiency in the target language.
The second category, that of indirect strategies, includes metacognitive for coordinating the learning processesaffective for regulating emotions and attitudesand social strategies for learning and working with others.
Diagram of the Strategy System Source: In real-life communication, everybody makes use of this kind of strategies if an expression is not Malay language learning strategies of various, or if something is not heard very clearly. Compensation strategies include guessing intelligently and overcoming limitations in speaking and writing.
Oxford, Rebecca L Guessing intelligently is highly important for reading and listening since it helps learners understand a lot of language without retaining all the details.
Guessing may be applied either by using linguistic clues or using clues of another nature. An example of guessing based on partial knowledge of the target language would be a learner who understands that a conversation is about going shopping after hearing the words trolley, money, market.
In the case of written materials, the same linguistic clues may lead to correct guesses. For instance, a learner knows that soup, salad and pie relateto food; thus, when he encounters pudding and steak on the same menu,he understands that these are constituents of a meal.
Using other clues besides those of linguistic nature is also very useful when listening and reading in the target language. They may refer to forms of address and social relationships, but also to nonverbal behaviour, including tone of voice, facial expression, emphasis, body language.
All these elements help learners understand or guess the meaning of what is being said or heard. In listening, a good source of nonlinguistic clues is represented by what has already been said. Thus, relying on this information, the learner may get the meaning of what is currently being said or he may anticipate what will be said.
Also in listening, perceptual clues related to the situation, such as the background noise or the number of characters involved, help the listener better understand the material. In oral or written stories, the descriptions of people, the identification of the situation presented in the passage or the recognition of the manner in which people treat each other can help listeners and readers guess the events and the message of the story.
Equally important are the pictures, the graphs, the tables or the text structure, including its title, introduction, transitions, and conclusion. Being able to overcome limitations in speaking and writing is an essential feature of a good language learner, since it allows learners to keep interacting or writing, despite their limited knowledge of language.
Overcoming limitations may be reached by applying the following compensation strategies: In the case of this strategy, the learner wants the other person to come with the word or expression he does not know, without explaining or clarifying it.
For example, learners might signal that they need help by saying only the beginning of the sentence, or by asking how do you say…? For example, learners may avoid a certain topic, or even a situation, because they are not certain of or they do not know the words, the constructions, the concepts or the grammatical structures associated with it.
If they enjoy the topic and are good at it, they will definitely direct the conversation towards it.Whereas, language learning strategies (LLSs) are sub category of general learning strategies and vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs) are consider as a part of language learning strategies (Nation, ).
The research to date has tended to focus on vocabulary learning strategies rather than language learning strategies. For example, there are differences between direct and indirect instruction; the nature of large-group discussion requires more guidance from the teacher than do small-group interactions (Johnston, ), and English-language learners may need different support in their communication efforts than do fluent English speakers.
learning and second language use strategies. Taken together, they constitute the steps Taken together, they constitute the steps or actions selected by learners either to improve the learning of a second language, the. Culture and Language.
By the s. all education was in the medium of English (with children learning another language alongside English). Naturally the presence of other languages (especially various varieties of Malay and of Chinese) has influenced the English of Singapore.
The influence is especially apparent in the kind of English. Teaching and learning strategies that draw on the social history and the everyday lives of students and their cultures can only assist this learning process.
They also learn to work cooperatively. All the skills of communication in each language are used on different days to learn, question, record, and share what has been learned from the.
academic materials in Malay. The syllabus of the National Language (B), namely the Malay languagehas been offered to non-Malaysian students who are interested.
National Language (B) is a compulsory subject taught in the institutions of higher learning that use other than the Malay language as .