The approach has grown and become more rooted in theory, and utilization management now is applied to businesses of all sizes.
Km tends to lie in the range 0. We can call this 'foraging'. The energy requirement for foraging Ef are given by the formula: To gain weight, an animal needs between 12 and 27 MJ of ME per kg liveweight, depending on the percentage that fat constitutes in the meat accumulated.
We can now compare supply and requirements of feed energy per ox for the 90 days of the dry season as follows: The standard laboratory method for the estimation of crude protein is the Kjeldahl method which is described in most texts on animal nutrition e. McDonald et al, ; Church and Pond, The analysis is used to determine the crude protein content of a sample of grass or stover, and the results can then be used to establish predictive regression equations similar to those illustrated in Figure 5.
When estimating the crude protein content of browse plants and crop residues, it should be borne in mind that the presence of certain phenolics tannins in these feeds can affect the availability of nitrogen to the ruminant.
This is particularly true of feeds high in insoluble polyphenolics, for which the calculated crude protein content may overestimate the amount of nitrogen which can actually be synthesised into protein e.
Woodward and Reed, Analysis should only be attempted if mineral deficiencies are clearly evident. Even then, if other nutrients such as energy or crude protein are more limiting as is likely to be the case on African rangelandsthe mineral constraint should be dealt with only after the primary deficiencies have been rectified Little, The methods used by ILCA researchers to diagnose the more common deficiencies involve blood, bone, liver, milk and faecal samples and are discussed in general terms below.
All the methods outlined rely on adequate laboratory facilities. For a more detailed account of symptoms of mineral deficiency and the role of minerals in animal nutrition, the user is referred to basic nutrition texts, e. Cullison and Church and Pond Whole blood, blood serum and blood plasma samples have been used to diagnose mineral deficiencies particularly phosphorous and magnesium in livestock.
Values significantly below 'normal' concentrations or ranges indicate the nutritional status of an animal with respect to a particular mineral, but the evidence is not always conclusive McDowell et al, Precautions must, for instance, be taken when samples are taken in less than optimum conditions since exercise, stress, temperature and other factors can alter mineral concentrations.
Such factors are often difficult to control in African conditions Mtimuni, and have resulted in high concentrations of phosphorous in serum when the concentration in forages consumed was, in fact, extremely low.
Little et al described a method for obtaining accurate estimates of blood inorganic P concentrations, but the difficulties of interpretation of such data were noted by Gartner et al Basically, only low blood inorganic P values have any diagnostic value.
Because of the problems just described, tests using bone samples have been developed to test for phosphorus deficiency in livestock.
Samples of rib bone can be obtained by simple surgery. For FSR diagnostic work, simple measurements that can be made on certain long bones at slaughter can provide results which are generally more reliable than those obtained from blood samples. These methods have been described by Little Liver samples have been used to diagnose for copper, cobalt and vitamin A deficiencies in African livestock Tartour, ; van Niekerk, ILCA has used samples of milk to diagnose mineral deficiencies in cattle in Ethiopia.Utilization Management: Introduction and Definitions Prior to having the cholecystectomy recommended by her physician, Greta Harrison calls an telephone number to notify the organization that does utilization management for her employer.
Seasonal Quality Assessment of Leaves and Stems of Fodder Ligneous Species. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of seasonality on the chemical composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in some ligneous species.
June 1, Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca in Scopus June 26, Full Article. The Utilization of Tree Bark. Zoltan Pásztory, a, * Ildikó Ronyecz Mohácsiné, a Galina Gorbacheva, b and Zoltán Börcsök a The utilization of natural raw materials has been practiced for centuries.
Of raw materials, wood and its bark have outstanding significance because of their special chemical components and unusual structure. utilization management functions and processes, but also includes transition of care (TOC) services for members. FHN is committed to comprehensive healthcare m anagement.
Utilization management programs. UM as used in this article is: “ a set of techniques used by or on behalf of purchasers of health benefits to manage health care costs by influencing patient care decision-making through case-by-case assessments of the appropriateness of care ”.
Summary of Utilization Management Process, Guidelines and Criteria. The materials provided to you are guidelines used by this plan to authorize, modify or deny care for persons with similar illnesses or conditions.
Specific care and treatment may vary depending on individual need and the benefits covered under your contract.