Persons who use tobacco or alcohol 40,41illegal drugs, including injection drugs and crack cocaine 42—47might also be at increased risk for infection and disease.
Introduction The process of transforming matter can be natural or artificial and chemistry has enabled man to satisfy his basic needs and constantly improve his living conditions.
Chemical substances can however also be dangerous to man and his environment. Depending on the quantities involved, their degree of toxicity, corrosive power, explosive force, inflammability or even radioactivity, they can cause considerable damage. It is therefore important to know the risks linked to chemical substances, to keep to the prescribed directives for handling them and to establish prevention, protection and intervention measures in order to prevent these risks from developing.
The chemical substances used in the home and workshop are not generally dangerous, as long as the instructions for their use and storage, which usually Preventing chemical accidents with the original container, are followed. It is especially important to keep these products out of reach of children and not to transfer them to containers used for storing food.
Large quantities of these dangerous substances are produced and used in industrial and commercial enterprises. Their careless handling, transport and storage entail serious dangers for man and the environment. It is important to guard against these risks by taking the necessary preventive, precaution and protective measures.
To these peace time risks are added the menace of chemical and biological weapons in times of war or crisis terrorismdespite international laws restricting or forbidding their use.
Protective measures against these are generally designed and taught by the military within the framework of civil protection. Preventive and protective measures Major accidents involving chemical substances have local effects, but in exceptional circumstances they can affect whole regions because of weather conditions.
Scientific technical developments have made it possible to prevent such dangers and therefore to protect people from them. The priority must be on prevention, but a positive result can only be assured if there are strict guidelines for using and handling these products, as well as professional knowledge, both of which are indispensable in this very complex field.
Intervention and rescue measures When an accident involving chemical substances that could endanger life or the environment occurs in a chemical works or installation, those in charge of it should immediately take the following planned measures: The local or regional governing body ensures the co-ordinated use of the civil and military means required to deal with the disaster.
In the case of radioactivity, the technical co-ordination of the implementation of protective and rescue measures is assured by specialists who should be present at all political levels and in all the intervening squads, and work in collaboration with the personnel in charge of security at the installation affected.
At the community level, the measures required will usually involve the following: In times of war, additional measures are also taken.
Turning off the water supply should this be necessary.
The special conditions governing intervention and protection in a chemical accident mean that the toxicity of the emissions and the area at risk from toxic fumes must be readily determined. This is urgent as the reaction time critical phase is extremely short. There exist mathematical tables, computer programmes and other tools which predict precisely how far the fumes will spread and enable the appropriate measures to be taken.
Rules of behaviour for the population 4.
This, especially for those living in the vicinity of a user or producer of dangerous chemical substances. Never transfer them into a container used for storing foodstuffs. Inform your neighbours, especially the elderly and handicapped and assist them.
Seal all exterior openings and turn off the ventilation, air conditioning and heating. Shelter in the nearest building and remain inside until otherwise instructed by the authorities.
Drink only from bottles or cartons. Listen to the radio and shelter in the nearest building. Follow the instructions of the authorities. If in public transport, follow the crew's instructions. The decision to evacuate or stay will be taken by the relevant political authority national or provincial government who will organise the evacuation using all the civilian and military means at their disposal and in collaboration with the services responsible for the reception area.
Follow the authorities' orders and instructions. Protection of ground water and the air is also of primary importance. This calls for close collaboration with official watchdogs and safety bodies and with the local and regional political authorities and their intervention services, especially the fire service and police as well as with the information and alarm centres of civil protection services.
Experience with toxic leaks, among others, has shown that the following specific preventive and protective measures should be taken:Another common type of injury in many warehouses and other facilities are those related to vehicles.
Just like car accidents on normal streets, indoor vehicles can . Preventing Chemical Accidents. Preventing chemical accidents is simple. Follow the instructions regarding the chemical whether in industry or at home. Should a chemical risk occur outside your home, your local Emergency Alert System or EAS will keep you informed by television or radio.5/5().
Accident Epidemiology and the RMP Rule: Learning from a Decade of Accident History Data for the U.S. Chemical Industry (PDF) ( pp, MB, About PDF) Exit. A report by the Wharton Risk Management and Decision Processes Center describing the major findings from accident epidemiology studies conducted under an EPA-Wharton cooperative agreement.
(d) Process Safety Information 4. Has the employer completed a compilation of written process safety information before conducting any process hazard analysis required by the standard?
Y N 5. Does this information include the hazards of the highly hazardous chemicals in the process (Material Safety Data Sheets may be used)? Y N 6. Dec 30, · Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention The material in this report originated in the National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Kevin Fenton, MD, PhD, Director; and the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, Kenneth G.
. To some people, the word “housekeeping” calls to mind cleaning floors and surfaces, removing dust, and organizing clutter. But in a work setting, it means much more.