Early translations into Arabic Already in Damascus, under the Umayyads, some philosophical writings had been translated into Arabic. His son and successor al-Mahdi r. Under the reign of Harun al-Rashid r. Aristotle, the Neoplatonic tradition and the rise of falsafa.
Evaluating Translations as Scholarship: Introduction The guidelines that follow are intended to help departments and institutions develop appropriate procedures for evaluating translations in personnel decisions related to hiring, retention, merit awards, promotion, and tenure.
Translation has been an indispensable component of intellectual exchange and development throughout recorded history. Today, the ever-accelerating interaction among cultures and economies in our globalized world is exponentially increasing the need for translation.
As more and more postsecondary institutions incorporate translation studies and translator training into their curricula, there is a growing need for faculty members who are scholars and practitioners of translation.
Moreover, the translation of a work of literature or scholarship—indeed, of any major cultural document—can have a significant impact on the intellectual community, while the absence of translations impedes the circulation of ideas. More and more academics are therefore undertaking translation as a component of their professional activity and as a natural extension of their teaching.
Whether they translate literary or scholarly works or other cultural documents, they are engaging in an exacting practice, at once critical and creative, that demands lexical precision; detailed knowledge of historical, political, social, and literary contexts; and a nuanced sense of style in both the source language and the target language.
It goes without saying that the machine-translation programs available online are woefully inadequate to cope with such demanding texts.
Every translation is an interpretation; each one begins with a critical reading, then expands and ultimately embodies that reading.
Given the importance of the endeavor and the expertise required to do it justice, a translation of a literary or scholarly work or another cultural document should be judged as an integral part of the dossiers submitted by candidates for academic positions and source work academic writing from sources online translator faculty members facing personnel decisions.
Institutions thus need to ensure that translations are subject to peer review on the same basis as monographs and other recognized instances of scholarly activity. For a thorough and equitable evaluation, a translation should be read by at least one reviewer who has mastery of both the source language and the target language and who can thus compare the translation with the source text.
Where feasible, this reviewer will also be a specialist in the academic field to which the translated text belongs.
If no one on the review panel has the appropriate qualifications, the chair should enlist an outside reviewer.
Ideas, Sourcework aims at guiding them in writing academic research papers themes and sources for students as well as an instructor site with chapter notes. Some are better than others. Source: Cartoon by Peter Arno, The New Yorker (April 6, ), p. Your paper should be more than a gloss on others’ work (unless it is specifically an analysis of that scholar’s work). It should be an original work that stands on its own. Use a variety of sources and make sure they include a range of opinions on any controversial topic. Calvin History Department Quick Guides for Writing Papers 1 Sample Chicago-style Citations The following are sample Chicago-style citations for commonly used types of urbanagricultureinitiative.com example includes a footnote and a bibliography entry.
Guidelines for the Candidate A candidate presenting a translation for peer review will take responsibility for documenting and illuminating the creative, critical, and scholarly work involved in the project. In principle the qualifier is necessary because editors sometimes interveneevery sentence, every word, every punctuation mark represents a deliberate choice by the translator in the attempt to capture not only meaning but also structure, idiom, diction, rhythm, tone, voice, and nuance.
A translation must occasionally violate the norms of Standard English in order to convey the characteristics and idiosyncrasies of the source text.
Reviewers who are not in a position to compare the translation with the source text can nevertheless consider questions such as the following: In a work of fiction, does the discursive register correspond to the context?
In a work of nonfiction, is there evidence that the translator has appropriately adapted the work to the frame of reference of its new audience? Has the translator sought out and referred to existing English editions of foreign works cited in the source text?
If the work has been translated before, how does the new translation compare with the earlier one s? Does it offer new insights or emphases? Since there are neither absolute standards nor readily applicable metrics by which to measure translation quality, the assessment of a translation must turn on the purpose and audience for which it is intended.
This point can best be illustrated by examples: One scholar has been invited to translate a collection of poems for a prestigious series highlighting the best new poets writing in Spanish.
This scholar focuses on re-creating the poetic effects of the source text rhyme, assonance, meter, imagery, and so onthereby sacrificing literal meaning, at least in part, as well as scrupulous adherence to the syntax of the source text.
Another scholar has been asked to use the same set of poems in a bilingual edition aimed primarily at people who read or are learning to read Spanish. This second translator chooses to adhere closely to the syntax of the source text and to highlight the referential content, sacrificing meter, rhyme, and other poetic devices.
The two translations differ dramatically, yet each is entirely appropriate to its intended purpose and new context. A third scholar has been invited to translate an eight-hundred-page book on Roman history.
The editor has instructed this scholar to select sections of the source text for cutting or condensation, to reduce the volume by twenty-five percent.
A good translation will contain few outright misreadings. Yet success or failure in translation ultimately depends not so much on the literal transposition of discrete meanings as on an interpretation of the myriad traits and dimensions of the source text.
Reviewers need to recognize that readability and argumentative comparability at the level of large-scale discursive structures paragraphs, chapters, entire books are legitimate objectives that may create the appearance of a departure at the level of words and sentences. Translators use a wide variety of techniques to compensate for structural differences between languages and to minimize loss: Acknowledgment Sections of this document have been adapted with permission from the following sources:The Writing Center at Empire State College Genesee Valley Center Rochester, NY.
GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS IN THE MLA STYLE. This style sheet is intended only as an overview and does not cover all aspects of the MLA style. MLA Documentation Guide Contents Writing the English Essay: Substance and Style provides help with the essay-writing process specifically for English essays.
When and What to Cite In MLA, the citation is composed of parentheses that contain source information. The primary source would be the poem, the work in question, and secondary. Identifying academic sources. When researching a topic for a university assignment, ‘academic’ sources are preferred over other types of writing.
They carry more weight and authority, and are likely to be more convincing. Academic sources are. Authoritative: academic sources identify the qualifications and expertise of the writer.
To some extent, scholars disagree about the role of the Greek sources in Arabic and Islamic philosophy (henceforth falsafa, the Arabic loan word for φιλοσοφία).  While acknowledging the existence of a Greek heritage, those who consider the Qur’an and the Islamic tradition as the main source of inspiration for falsafa claim that the latter did not arise from the encounter of.
If your sources are very important to your ideas, you should mention the author and work in a sentence that introduces your citation. If, however, you are only citing the source to make a minor point, you may consider using parenthetical references, footnotes, or endnotes.
Secondary Sources For example, you are referring to a study by Seidenberg and McClelland that is cited in an article by Coltheart, Curtin, Atkins & Haller.
Name the original work in-text and cite the secondary source you have seen.