The moral roots of liberals and conservatives Psychologist Jonathan Haidt studies the five moral values that form the basis of our political choices, whether we're left, right or center. In this eye-opening talk, he pinpoints the moral values that liberals and conservatives tend to honor most.
Following the upheaval of the French Revolutionindividualisme was used pejoratively in France to signify the sources of social dissolution and anarchy and the elevation of individual interests above those of the collective. In Germanythe ideas of individual uniqueness Einzigkeit and self-realization—in sum, the Romantic notion of individuality—contributed to the cult of individual genius and were later transformed into an organic theory of national community.
According to this view, state and society are not artificial constructs erected on the basis of a social contract but instead unique and self-sufficient cultural wholes.
In Englandindividualism encompassed religious nonconformity i. In the United Statesindividualism became part of the core American ideology by the 19th century, incorporating the influences of New England Puritanism, Jeffersonianism, and the philosophy of natural rights. American individualism was universalist and idealist but acquired a harsher edge as it became infused with elements of social Darwinism i.
One such question focuses on how facts about the behaviour of groups, about social processes, and about large-scale historical events are to be explained. According to methodological individualism, a view advocated by Austrian-born British philosopher Karl Popper —94any explanation of such a fact ultimately must appeal to, or be stated in terms of, facts about individuals—about their beliefs, desires, and actions.
A closely related view, sometimes called ontological individualism, is the thesis that social or historical groups, processes, and events are nothing more than complexes of individuals and individual actions.
Methodological individualism precludes explanations that appeal to social factors that cannot in turn be individualistically explained.
Another question that arises in debates over individualism is how objects of worth or value i. Some theorists, known as atomists, argue that no such goods are intrinsically common or communal, maintaining instead that there are only individual goods that accrue to individuals.
According to this perspective, morality and politics are merely the instruments through which each individual attempts to secure such goods for himself.
Another is the idea, typical in economics and in other social sciences influenced by economics, that most social institutions and relationships can best be understood by assuming that individual behaviour is motivated primarily by self-interest. Especially notable critiques have been made by advocates of communitarianismwho tend to equate individualism with narcissism and selfishness.Moreover, Haidt argues (or implies), conservatives actually have a more complicated moral system, consisting all of the five values, whereas liberals are dominated by just two.
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The Fallacies of Moralism and Moral Aestheticism (after Friedrich Schiller, Leonard Nelson, Camille Paglia, & Robert Hughes) The Fallacy of Moralism. This is a Journal of Moral Issues for Christians in the Church of Jesus Christ.
5 days ago · Jonathan Haidt's TED talk, below, discusses the development of human morality and its differences among 'liberals' and 'conservatives', and most importantly, that there is a useful balance between the two which we have been weaponizing. Haidt describes a study in which he examines how well liberals, conservatives, and moderates understand each other.
From page of The Righteous Mind (emphasis added): When I speak to liberal audiences about the three "binding" foundations - Loyalty, Authority, Sanctity - I find that many in the audience don't just fail to resonate; they actively reject.