Homosexuality in ancient GreecePederasty in ancient Greeceand Prostitution in ancient Greece In ancient Greecethe phallusoften in the form of a hermawas an object of worship as a symbol of fertility.
He turns them round and round upon the wheel of Maya. Take refuge utterly in Him. By his grace you will find supreme peace, and the state which is beyond all change.
As the above quotations indicate, almost all of the world's religions, in their own sacred writings and scriptures, say that they support "peace".
Yet it is a known fact that war and violence have often been undertaken historically, as well as at present, in the name of religion as is discussed further below. Yet religions profess to want peace. So what is 'peace'?
And how have religions historically helped to promote peace, and how might they help create a more peaceful world in the 21st century? These are a few of the questions that this paper will attempt to explore. Traditionally many people focus on how wars and conflicts are seemingly undertaken for religious reasons, or at least undertaken in the name of religion.
Indeed, it is not difficult to find data and statistics in support of this hypothesis. Quincy Wright, in his monumental study, A Study of Wardocuments numerous wars and armed conflicts that involve a direct or indirect religious component, Wright, as does Lewis Richardson in his statistical treatise, Statistics of Deadly Quarrels.
Richardson, As the Cold War has ended and inter-ethnic conflicts have re-emerged in many parts of the world, it has indeed been a popular thesis of different writers to argue that these inter-ethnic conflicts often have a religious component.
A few examples of such recent writing include: Ethnicity in International Politics; and R. Following UNESCO's lead in holding two conferences on "The Contributions of Religions to a Culture of Peace" both held in Barcelona, Spain, in April and Decemberand other interfaith dialogues between different religions that are occurring in a serious way around the planet--including the World Parliament of Religions, in Chicago, August ; 1and the ongoing work of the World Council on Religion and Peace--this paper will focus instead on how religious and spiritual traditions can contribute to creating a more peaceful world via an exploration of the foundations for both inner and outer peace in the twenty first-century.
The paper will have four parts: In considering the external aspects of religion, principles from the field of intercultural communication are used to explore the creation of tolerance, understanding and valuing of diversity concerning different aspects of socially learned behavior or culture, including religion.
Fundamentalism or religious extremism or fanaticism--when religions claim their version of religion is the only one--are seen as an extreme form of the socially-learned aspect of religion and one not conducive to creating world peace.
In considering the internal or esoteric aspects of religion, it is noted that all the world's religions began with someone who had a mystical enlightenment or revelatory experience, which they then tried to share with others, leading often to the formation of new religions--even though this was not the intention of the original founder.
Parallels between new scientific paradigms and ancient mystical traditions from the world's religions are then noted to illustrate how contemporary dynamic, interconnected, whole systems ways of experiencing and viewing reality can be seen as providing necessary conditions "within the individual" for creating an external global culture of peace in the world.
Here, three different topical areas are explored: The conceptual shift involved in moving from peace as absence of war through peace as absence of large scale physical and structural violence negative and positive peace respectively to more holistic definitions of peace that apply across all levels and include both an inner and an outer dimension, represents a substantial broadening of the peace concept in Western peace research.
Part III then uses the above evolution in the concept of peace as a framework to explore different dimensions of "a culture of peace," as well as different dimensions of "nonviolence. An Agenda for Future Peace Research--Based on the Need to Focus on Both Inner and Outer Aspects of Peace Part IV argues that Western peace research has focused almost entirely on outer peace, but that in future it needs to deal with both inner and outer aspects of peace in a more balanced way.
In order to do this, it is suggested that peace research elaborate on the different dimensions and levels of inner peace, just as it has done for outer peace, and that it expand its methodology to include other ways of knowing besides social scientific methods only.
Finally, peace research needs to redress the inbalance between negative and positive images of peace by exploring not only what it wants to eliminate, for example war and starvation, but also what it wants to create in a positive sense. Please note that this paper is an ongoing project that will become a book.
At present, some sections of the paper are developed more than others, but the basic framework is here. Please contact the writers in the future for later elaborations of this writing. We offer this version of the paper with humility, aware that further revisions and elaborations are necessary. First, there is religion as socially-learned behavior, i.
When religious beliefs take the form of rigid dogma, and the believers' beliefs and behavior are known to be right, while those of non believers, or other religions--or even different variants within one's own religion--are known to be wrong, this leads into what has been variously called "fundamentalism" or "fanaticism" or "extremism"--a global trend in almost all of the world's religions today.
At the other extreme are mystical traditions which are based on direct inner spiritual experiences. Here, such mystical, revelatory, or enlightenment experiences rather than socially learned behavior and beliefs constitute an important part of one's spiritual life.
Such spiritual experiences have also occurred in mystics from all the world's religions throughout the ages. Indeed, the founders of the world's religions were themselves usually mystics, i. Given these considerations, it is possible to look at any religion as having a potential spectrum of different forms within it, each discussed separately in the paper, as follows: Spectrum of Potential Perspectives Within Any Religion It is interesting that mystics of all religions can usually communicate with each other and appreciate the spiritual or God force operating within each other--no matter what religious tradition the other mystics come from.
Organized religion is often tolerant of different religious traditions, as seen in ecumenical movements around the world, but there can be misunderstanding between religions based on differing beliefs and practices. These misunderstandings can be lessened by educational programs focusing on the appreciation and understanding of cultural and religious diversity.Words and ideas lifted from Seth Godin and Thom Hartmann.
Godin is the author of Tribes, which I can highly recommend. ==== 10, years ago, civilization forked. Farming was invented and the way people spent their time was changed forever. Art has been a medium through which people have not only documented, but also shaped history—both past and future.
Periodically, individuals, groups, and societies have also drawn on or appropriated artistic forms of the past to make statements in and about the present.
Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience. They are all artistically enhanced with visually stunning color, shadow and lighting effects.
Many of them are also animated. Since that time, throughout history, man's recording of life and spirituality through various forms of art has changed from epoch to epoch, from media to media, and from artist to artist.
Yet the basic theme remains to communicate with an audience and express a personal philosophy of life and science. The following quiz consists of multiple choice questions to test your knowledge of facts about early man. There is also a Venn Diagram asking you to compare two given species of early man.
Since time immemorial, our climate has been and will always be changing. Patrick Moore explains why "climate change," far from being a recent human-caused disaster, is, for a myriad of complex reasons, a fact of life on Planet Earth.